Category: Demo

Make linux boot bifurcation

02.01.2010 1 By Mozuru

Jun 28, 2020 · Create a Live Bootable USB Ubuntu Installer for macOS. The first task in installing and configuring Ubuntu on your Mac is to create a live bootable USB flash drive that contains the Ubuntu Desktop OS. Use this flash drive to not only install Ubuntu . Dec 10, 2020 · I just flashed my mb (P9X79 E-WS) with a modified bios that support bifurcation on the pcie slots, I also ordered a card that works with my mb. Is it possible to create a bootable . Oct 27, 2020 · In Linux, the boot partition contains files like the kernel itself, which is the operating system’s ticking heart and brain. It’s also where you will find initrd, which loads a temporary root system in the computer’s memory, and GRUB, the bootloader that loads the operating system. In the past, the boot and the system partitions were.

May 25, 2019 · This. I can't boot directly from my NVMe via a PCIe adapter because of the BIOS. There have been reports that a modified BIOS for my board can handle booting from it, but I haven't the courage to attempt it. With that said, if you're running Linux, you only need /boot to be somewhere that's not your NVMe drive. Oct 10, 2020 · The file will be automatically created.. Notes about building. ISOLINUX: only uses plain ISO 9660 filenames, i.e. it does not support Rock Ridge [], or Joliet filenames.It can still be used on a disc that uses Rock Ridge and/or Joliet extensions, of course. Under Linux, you can verify the plain filenames by mounting with the "-o norock,nojoliet" option of the mount command.

Do You Need a Boot Partition in Linux?

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5. Linux Drivers

Different PMDs may require different kernel drivers in order to work properly. Depending on the PMD being used, a corresponding kernel driver should be loaded, and network ports should be bound to that driver.

5.1. VFIO

VFIO is a robust and secure click at this page that relies on IOMMU protection. To make use of VFIO, the module must be loaded:

VFIO kernel is usually present by default in all distributions, however please consult your distributions documentation make make sure that is the case.

Since Linux version 5.7, the module supports the creation of virtual functions. After the PF is bound to module, the user can create the VFs using the interface, and these VFs will be bound to module automatically.

When the PF is bound toby default it will have a randomly generated VF token. For security reasons, this token is write only, so the user cannot read it from the kernel directly. To access the VFs, the user needs to create a new token, and use it to initialize both VF and PF devices. The tokens are in UUID format, so any UUID generation tool can be used to create a new token.

This VF boot can be passed to DPDK by using EAL parameter. The token will be used for all PF and VF ports within the application.

  1. Generate the VF token by uuid command

  2. Load the module with parameter set

    sudo modprobe vfio-pci enable_sriov=1
  3. Bind the PCI devices to driver

    ./usertools/ vfio-pci 0000:86:00.0
  4. Create the desired number of VF devices

    echo 2 > /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:86:00.0/sriov_numvfs
  5. Start the DPDK application that will manage the PF device

    <build_dir>/app/dpdk-testpmd -l 22-25 -n 4 -a 86:00.0 \--vfio-vf-token=14d63f20-8445-11ea-8900-1f9ce7d5650d --file-prefix=pf -- -i
  6. Start the DPDK application that will manage the VF device

    <build_dir>/app/dpdk-testpmd -l 26-29 -n 4 -a 86:02.0 \--vfio-vf-token=14d63f20-8445-11ea-8900-1f9ce7d5650d --file-prefix=vf0 -- -i

To make use of full VFIO functionality, both kernel and BIOS must support and be configured to use IO virtualization (such as Intel® VT-d).


Linux versions earlier than version 3.6 do not support VFIO.


Linux versions earlier than version 5.7 do not support the creation of virtual functions within the VFIO framework.


In most cases, specifying “iommu=on” as kernel parameter should be enough to configure the Linux source to use IOMMU.

For proper operation of VFIO when running DPDK applications as a non-privileged user, correct permissions should also be set up. For more information, please refer to Running DPDK Applications Without Root Privileges.

5.2. VFIO no-IOMMU bifurcation there is no IOMMU available on the system, VFIO can still be used, but it has to be loaded with an additional module parameter:

modprobe vfio enable_unsafe_noiommu_mode=1

Alternatively, one can also enable this option in an already loaded kernel module:

echo 1 > /sys/module/vfio/parameters/enable_unsafe_noiommu_mode

After that, VFIO can be used with hardware devices as usual.


It may be required to unload all VFIO related-modules before probing the module again with parameter.


Since no-IOMMU mode forgoes IOMMU protection, it is inherently unsafe. That said, it does make it possible for the user to keep the degree of device access and programming that VFIO has, in situations where IOMMU is el acto de leer wolfgang available.

5.3. UIO

In situations where using VFIO is not an option, there are alternative drivers one can use. In many cases, the standard module included in the Linux kernel can be used as a substitute for VFIO. This module can be loaded using the command:

sudo modprobe uio_pci_generic


module doesn’t support the creation of virtual functions.

As an alternative to thethere is the module which can be found in the repository dpdk-kmods. It can be loaded as shown below:

sudo modprobe uiosudo insmod igb_uio.ko


If the devices used for DPDK are bound to the kernel module, please make sure that the IOMMU is disabled or is in passthrough mode. One bifurcation add or or in GRUB command line on x86_64 systems, or add on aarch64 systems.


Using UIO drivers is inherently unsafe due to this method lacking IOMMU protection, and can only be done by root user.

5.4. Bifurcated Driver

PMDs which use the bifurcated driver co-exists with the device kernel driver. On such model the NIC is controlled by the kernel, while the data path is performed by the PMD directly on top of the device.

Such model has the following benefits:

  • It is secure and robust, as the memory management and isolation is done by the kernel.

  • It enables the user to use legacy linux tools such as or while running DPDK click here on the same network ports.

  • It enables the DPDK application to filter only part of the traffic, while the rest will be directed and handled by the kernel driver. The flow bifurcation is performed by the NIC hardware. As an example, using Flow isolated mode allows to choose strictly what is received in DPDK.

More about the bifurcated driver can be found in Mellanox Bifurcated DPDK PMD.

5.5. Binding and Unbinding Network Ports to/from the Kernel Modules


PMDs which use the bifurcated driver should not be unbound from their kernel drivers. This section is for PMDs which use the UIO or VFIO drivers.

As of release 1.4, DPDK applications no longer automatically unbind all supported network ports from the kernel driver in source. Instead, in case the PMD being used use the VFIO or UIO drivers, all ports that are to be used by a DPDK application must be bound to the, or module before the application is run. For such PMDs, any network ports under Linux* control will be ignored and cannot be used by the application.

To bind ports to the or module for DPDK use, or to return ports to Linux control, a utility script called is provided in the subdirectory. This utility can be used to provide a view of the current state of the network ports on the system, and to bind and unbind those ports from the different kernel modules, including the VFIO and UIO modules. The following are some examples of how the script can be used. A full description of the script and its parameters can be obtained by calling the script with the linux options. Note that the UIO or VFIO kernel modules to be used, should be loaded into the kernel before running the script.


Due to the way VFIO works, there are certain limitations to which devices can be used with VFIO. Mainly it comes down to how IOMMU groups work. Any Virtual Function device can usually be used with VFIO on its own, but physical devices may require either all ports bound to VFIO, or some of them bound to VFIO while others not being bound to anything at all.

If your device is behind a PCI-to-PCI bridge, the bridge will then be part of the IOMMU group in which your device is in. Therefore, the bridge driver should also be unbound from the bridge PCI device for VFIO to work with devices behind the bridge.


While any user can run the script to view the status of the network ports, binding or unbinding network ports requires root privileges.

To see the status of all network ports on the system:

./usertools/ --statusNetwork devices using DPDK-compatible driver============================================0000:82:00.0 '82599EB 10-GbE NIC' drv=uio_pci_generic unused=ixgbe0000:82:00.1 '82599EB 10-GbE NIC' drv=uio_pci_generic unused=ixgbeNetwork devices using kernel driver===================================0000:04:00.0 'I350 1-GbE NIC' if=em0 drv=igb unused=uio_pci_generic *Active*0000:04:00.1 'I350 1-GbE NIC' if=eth1 drv=igb unused=uio_pci_generic0000:04:00.2 'I350 1-GbE NIC' if=eth2 drv=igb unused=uio_pci_generic0000:04:00.3 'I350 1-GbE NIC' if=eth3 drv=igb unused=uio_pci_genericOther network devices=====================<none>

To bind device ,``04:00.1``, to the driver:

./usertools/ --bind=uio_pci_generic 04:00.1

or, alternatively,

./usertools/ --bind=uio_pci_generic eth1

To restore device to its original kernel binding:

./usertools/ --bind=ixgbe 82:00.0

5.6. Troubleshooting VFIO

In certain situations, using script to bind a device to VFIO driver may fail. The first place to check is the kernel messages:


I successfully managed to setup PCIe Bifurcation on my Supermicro Is there a kernel command line to tell Linux to keep consistent PCIe addresses? I believe Then run it at boot, say by making an '@reboot' crontab entry. The disk clone mostly worked; I can boot into my primary Win10 A seperate MX Linux boots fine. Interestingly, opening the System Configuration tool shows that Win10 is aware of the other windows install, and settings i make there like changing Enable bifurcation if required and set boot to UEFI only.

How to Create a Bootable Windows 10 USB in Linux

Ssd Not Detected In Hp Laptop

OK so the AK-PCCM2P-02 appears to be a single drive adapter, which means no reason to bifurcate the slot.  Sorry for the confusion.


I believe we officially linud supported NVMe when BIOS was in UEFI mode.  There here a couple of ways to accomplish this:

1.  Check the setting for OS Optimized Defaults (in the exit menu).  If set to enabled, then your system is running in UEFI mode.

2.  If OS Optimized Defaults bot set to disabled, you can still force the OPROM to load in UEFI mode as long as the CSM is enabled.  You can check this under CSM configuration in BIOS setup.


The true way to check to linjx if BIOS is truly seeing and enumerating the drive is to check the IIO configuration.  To do this, you'll want to go into BIOS setup, then Advanced, then IIO Configuration, then IIO0 configuration.  From there, you should be able to check the status of each port attached to the Bifjrcation Look through the ports to see if you find one linking/training at PCIe gen3 x4 (note the specific port will pinux on where you have the NVMe drive boot You should be able to install that drive to either the FLEX adapter (slot 1), or any of the available x4 or higher PCIe slots (CPU routed slots are recommended to obtain gen3 speeds).


Lastly, we've seen some scenarios where the drive actually has to be bifurcatio in order for BIOS to see it properly bifurcatjon the boot device list.  Sometimes when the drive is unformatted, BIOS wasn't able bifurcation properly list the drive in the boot order, though it had enumerated the device properly.  


If the drive is linking/training properly in the IIO0 configuration menu, then it could simply need to be formatted.  In that case, you can try looking in disk management (if adding the drive as a data drive), or simply trying to install your OS to the drive if you intend for it to be the boot drive.

If we've helped resolve your issue, please be sure to mark your topic as solved!

Oct 28, 2020 · If you are a nerd and like to create a bootable drive from Linux terminal, use dd command. That was a round-up of some of the software utilities that you can use to create a bootable USB drive. All are readily available for all major Linux distros and installation is . Dec 08, 2016 · Click the “Device” box in Rufus and ensure your connected drive is selected. If the “Create a bootable disk using” option is grayed out, click the “File System” box and select “FAT32”. Activate the “Create a bootable disk using” checkbox, click the button to the right of it, and select your downloaded ISO file.